The National Bison Range Complex consists of four National Wildlife Refuges (Ninepipe NWR, Pablo NWR, Lost Trail NWR, National Bison Range NWR) and the Northwest Montana Wetlands Management District. The complex is managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes have applied for federal funding to take on a management role at the range.

The complex's centerpiece, the National Bison Range, is one of the nation's first National Wildlife Refuges, founded in 1908. The range encompasses approximately 18,500 acres located an hour north of Missoula, bounded by Montana highways 212, 200, and 93. The property is traversed by winter-only Winter Dr. and Red Sleep Mountain Dr., the latter a 19-mile one-way gravel road including 10-percent grades.

The range supports between 350 and 500 bison. Visitors are advised to remain with their cars at all times—and inside them in proximity to wildlife—on the auto-tour routes. Pets must be leashed, firearms and camping are prohibited. Hiking allowed on designated footpaths only. Bison are wild, as are the elk, mule deer, bighorn sheep, black bears, and 200-plus species of birds that share the range.

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